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Abandoned by the world: Why was more not done to help Bosnia?



General Mladić: “General Mladić here.”

Serbian Soldier:     “Yes, sir.”

General Mladić: “Target Muslim neighbourhoods – Not many Serbs live 

there…Shell them until they are on the edge of madness.

(An intercepted military conversation ordering the siege of Sarajevo,

 Bosnia – April 1992)

This horrific conversation ordering the massacre of thousands of innocent civilians did not take place in an era long gone, rather it occurred within the borders of Europe itself, during the span of most of our lifetimes. 

Yet when we asked our friends and colleagues about how much they knew about the conflict in Bosnia, in nine out of 10 cases, they said they had only basic or no knowledge whatsoever about it. The question that begs to be asked then, is how are we still oblivious to the atrocities and horrors committed in the Balkan War? 

We should all hope to better understand this shameful chapter in our collective history, and understand that whilst learning lessons from our past, we can be better equipped to make decisions based on justice and peace in the future.

Disintegration of Yugoslavia

Although the words Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia no longer appear on the world map, in the 1990s this nation was at the centre of the international community’s attention. A country bigger than the United Kingdom in the heart of Europe was suddenly disintegrating, creating such seismic geo-political rifts that it led to the deadliest conflict in Europe since World War II. 

Such grave violations of human rights occurred as each ethnicity pursued its own path, leaving anyone with a sympathetic heart, shaken and disturbed. For Muslims, it is an even bleaker chapter of history to come to terms with as the brunt of the ethnic cleansing that ensued was faced by the Muslim population of Bosnia and Herzegovina with no one coming to their aid till all was too late.

In order to properly comprehend this episode, it becomes incumbent on us to first delve a little deeper to understand the historical context of the conflict.    

The history

Since its inception in the aftermath of WWII, Yugoslavia was a country made up of six smaller nations: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia. With the collapse of the Soviet Union and subsequently increasing nationalism in the 1980’s, cracks began to appear in Yugoslavia. Slovenia, the first to step away in June 1991, gained independence relatively peacefully. The same fate, however, did not await the other republic states.  

(Map showing the boundaries of the former Yugoslavia and the ethnic states within it)

Realising the impending threat to their power, the Serbs – the largest ethnic group in Yugoslavia – mobilised their military and paramilitary to ensure any further calls for independence would be met with force. So when the Croatians and Bosnian Muslims followed in the footsteps of Slovenia, war and bloodshed ensued.

Though the war in Croatia left in its wake an estimated death toll of 20,000, this staggering figure pales in comparison to the destruction that the Muslims of Bosnia and Herzegovina were made to endure after their announcement of independence in May 1992.

The call for sovereignty by Bosnia and Herzegovina set in motion a merciless massacre of Bosnian Muslims carried out by the Serbs. The campaign was so intense that within six weeks, a coordinated offensive brought roughly two-thirds of Bosnian territory under Serb control. The presence of ethnic Serbs in Bosnia was sustained by the full military support of the Serbian government whilst on the other hand the Bosnian Muslims had neither an army nor sufficient arms to defend themselves.  

This paved the way to the murder of almost 80,000 defenceless Muslims in a matter of three and a half years from 1992-1995. The ethnic cleansing by Serbs was so intense that up to 90% of non-Serbs who lived in Bosnia, majority of them Muslim, were forced to flee, face imprisonment, or be killed. 

The Bosnians seem to have borne the brunt of the Serbian cruelty as a result of their Islamic faith, for why else would the disparity between the destruction of the Croats and the Bosnian Muslims by the Serbs be so stark? Croatia utilized its strong cultural and historic ties with Germany to receive support in their fight for independence and subsequent development, while the Muslims failed to find any such support.   

What of the Muslim countries? None came forth with any effective response to Bosnia’s calls for help for over two years.   

Failure of the UN – what held them back?  

Despite the Bosnians making repeated pleas for action, the United Nations at the time refused to intervene, all the while maintaining its ‘impartiality’ in what it deemed a domestic ‘civil war.’ 

As history has now proven, this inaction of the UN and the world at large under the excuse of ‘impartiality’ allowed for an entire generation of Bosnians to be wiped out with impunity in a continent as developed as Europe. 

(A Norwegian UN Peacekeeper in Sarajevo)

The little support that was sent to Bosnia by the UN was so meagre that several of the UN Peacekeeper units themselves became Serbian hostages

In fact, it was with the fear of UN peacekeeping forces being taken hostage that initial NATO airstrikes were halted in May 1995.   

Starving the Muslims, arming the Serbs – The UN arms ‘embargo’   

The indifference on the part of the international community was indeed not the only tragedy, in fact many of the decisions made by the UN from the very onset of the conflict ensured that those who wanted to help the Bosnians were unable to do so. 

This sorry state of affairs was epitomised by a UN-enforced arms embargo of 1991. The idea was to starve both sides of weaponry, thereby bringing about an end to the conflict. Hypothetically, the idea sounded credible, but in reality, the arms embargo was only truly implemented against the Muslims of Bosnia. This was because the countries bordering the Bosnian Muslims were willing to strictly implement the UN embargo, ensuring that no weapons could enter from their borders. On the other side, the channel through which the Bosnian Serbs were receiving their weapons, i.e. from Serbia, had never intended to implement the embargo against its own Serb allies in Bosnia. 

The Bosnian Serbs continued to receive an endless supply of weapons from Serbia, who had assumed control of the army and supplies of former Yugoslavia. After all, Serbia was trying to take control of Bosnia, so why would they implement an arms embargo against their other half in Bosnia? Thus, instead of an embargo, free access to heavy artillery including tanks, anti-air craft missiles and units of armed personnel were being heavily capitalised upon by the Serbs of Bosnia.

Left utterly defenceless, the Bosnians came under the boots of the Serbian military prowess and fell victim to utter massacre and unfettered assault. 

The injustice and imbalance was blatant to see, yet attempts to lift the embargo were repeatedly blocked in the UN.  

Making a heart-wrenching case for the lifting of the embargo at the UN in September 1994 – after three long years since being implemented – the Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic pleaded at the UN General Assembly, “Justice has turned into injustice…because the aggressor had weapons – which had been stockpiled over 40 years (since the foundation of Yugoslavia after WWII) – while the victim was unarmed and its hands were kept tied.”

Some politicians spoke openly of the grave absurdity of the embargo. Even President Joe Biden, then a much younger Senator of Delaware in January 1994, spoke in the US senate and called out the injustice: 

“How in God’s name can we argue against lifting the embargo? For God’s sake. We put the embargo in the name of ‘diminishing bloodshed.’ Do I need to make the point any more than to submit for the record the total number of casualties that have occurred in Bosnia Herzegovina since we put the embargo on? What in the devil could have happened more? The perverse British and French argument, that if we lift the embargo, we’re going to perpetuate the bloodshed! They’re idiots. And we’re acting collectively as the free world like cowards.”

The situation on the ground became such that on 23rd April 1994, the New York Times reported that the UN had even advised against the air-dropping of basic food supplies for the Bosnians. This statement had come with the fear that “such an air-drop would only draw civilians out into the open where they will be annihilated by every type of fire imaginable.”
(Cutting of the New York Times Report of 23rd April 1994)

Every step, or lack thereof, that the international community was taking was so half-hearted that it seemed as though no option could be adopted to help the Bosnians. 

Initially, when limited NATO airstrikes began in May 1995, the Serbs took 400 UN peacekeepers as hostages. The strikes were subsequently halted at haste.       

Ivo Daalder, a former US Ambassador to NATO, described the decision to halt the airstrikes as sending “the not-so-subtle message to the Bosnian Serbs that they were now free to pursue their preferred strategy. That strategy called ‘ethnic cleansing’”.

With hindsight, after having witnessed what the same superpowers who felt ‘helpless’ against Serbia did in such well-established countries such as Iraq, Afghanistan and Libya, it makes one question: Was it really the case that the great militaries of France, Britain, Germany or the United States were left ‘helpless’ or was it simply indifference? Were they truly cornered by the Serbs and unable to take substantial actions for months on end or were these lax efforts simply the result of doing the bare minimum and merely trying to save face.

The fall of Srebrenica

This cruel amalgamation of events and misplaced priorities led to the Srebrenica massacre of July 1995, where over 8,000 Bosnian Muslim men were slaughtered in 10 short days. 

The Human Rights Watch, an NGO, made a special report on the human rights violations titled “The Fall of Srebrenica and the Failure of U.N. Peacekeeping”. They summarised the atrocities and the state of the international response in their report published in October 1995 in the following bleak terms:

“The fall of the town of Srebrenica and its environs to Bosnian Serb forces in early July 1995 made a mockery of the international community’s professed commitment to safeguard regions it declared to be “safe areas” and placed under United Nations protection in 1993. United Nations peacekeeping officials were unwilling to heed requests for support from their own forces stationed within the enclave, thus allowing Bosnian Serb forces to easily overrun it and — without interference from UN soldiers — to carry out systematic, mass executions of hundreds, possibly thousands, of civilian men and boys and to terrorize, rape, beat, execute, rob and otherwise abuse civilians being deported from the area.” 

The fact that the killings continued not for days or months, but for years, begs the question as to what held the international community back? As Europe enjoyed what is often said to be the best decade in living memory, thousands of families in Bosnia were lined up to be slaughtered. 

In such an era of advancement, in which the world witnessed the advent of the internet, the end of Apartheid in South Africa, and the booming golden years of the American economy, the people of Bosnia were victims of a modern-day Holocaust but were met with nothing but a blind eye. 

‘Why?’ is a question that still demands an answer from those who could have made a difference. Whilst the fires of the Bosnian war were still ablaze, perhaps Joe Biden at the time explained the reason well: “If these were not Muslims, the world would be reacting. Just like if it were not the Jews in the 1930’s. Shame on the West.” 

Too little, too late

What truly puts the picture in context is that just a year prior to the war against Bosnia, major Muslim countries claiming to be ‘upholders of Islam’ passed Fatwas, an Islamic ruling, declaring the Gulf War against Saddam Hussein to be a ‘Jihad’. That call for Jihad supporting a non-religious geo-political endeavour was totally unjustified, yet the Muslim countries mobilised their wealth and militaries and every possible support for the US-led war. However, when it came to Bosnia, the same Muslim-majority countries were nowhere to be seen.

After more than 100,000 people needlessly lost their lives, the conflict finally came to an end as a result of long-overdue pressure from Muslim countries, the arrival of NATO military intervention, and a US-brokered peace-treaty, dividing Bosnia into two self-governing entities. 

The suffering continues

The conflict may have officially come to an end in December 1995, but the suffering and pain continues to this day. 

As the widows of Bosnia still live and breathe and as the horrors still burn fresh in the minds of its victims, some of those same mass murderers continue to walk free and even masquerade as politicians and leaders of the people in Serbia. 

Not only do such criminals continue to escape the grasp of justice and deny the very existence of this monstrous extermination, they are commemorated and celebrated as heroes, with institutions of learning and roads wearing their name as a twisted mark of honour.  

In the words of Serger Brammertz, the former chief prosecutor of the UN International Criminal Tribunal which was tasked with bringing the war criminals of the Bosnian conflict to justice:

“A number of alleged genocidaires have fled to Serbia and found safe haven there, including political leaders and military commanders…I have witnessed the pain of the survivors who must face the reality that some of those alleged to have murdered their loved ones can still walk the streets freely….War criminals convicted by the ICTY [UN International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia] are often hailed as heroes by prominent figures, while victims’ suffering is ignored, denied and disparaged.”

The blood of Bosnia has stained the pages of our history, but until and unless we remember, and learn lessons from the horrors of our past, we will forever run the risk of witnessing them again in our future. 

All views expressed in this editorial are solely that of the author, and are not expressed on behalf of The Analyst, its affiliates, or staff.

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1 Comment

1 Comment

  1. Fahim Anwer

    6 July 2021 at 5:51 pm

    A very thought provoking article for those not familiar with this conflict that occurred well within most of our lifetime. Such were the atrocities committed under the eyes of a watching Europe that the European politicians of the time must bow their heads in shame for allowing this dark period in modern history to occur.
    Just 50 years after the last genocide in Europe, were there no lessons learnt? Had the Western Nations become so arrogant that such horrors and violations could not possibly happen within their midst again that they were caught totally off guard resulting in calamitous decision after calamitous decision?
    For sure not enough of this catastrophic period is widely known, if anything it seems to have been brushed under the carpet, almost forgotten, further adding to the shame of Europe.
    While similar tragedies are still taking place in other parts of the world we can only hope and pray that the spirit of humanity rises above rhetoric and political debate enabling true justice to prevail.

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The world rushes to help Tonga as the volcanic ash settles down



On 15th January 2022, the thick smoke and ash from a volcanic eruption of the Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha’apai volcano shrouded the Island and made it impossible to reach. After more than five days, humanitarian aid has now started to reach Tonga. The world is coming together to provide the people stranded on the Island with drinkable water and basic supplies. Much of the island still does not have proper means of communication and connection to the world and almost 80% of the population have been reported to be affected by natural disaster. 

Australia and New Zealand, being the nearing Islands, are on the frontline for sending aid for the disaster-stricken Tonga. Flights carrying power supply units, hygiene and sanitation product as well as the supplies for purifying water are being flown away to Tonga. While the disaster broke off the communication, The Naval forces of both Australia and New Zealand have set out their vessels from HMAS and HMNZS to provide assistance in the rescue efforts. 

According to a statement released by Nanaia Mahuta, The Minister for Foreign Affairs: “Communication issues caused by the eruption have made this disaster response particularly challenging. The delays mean we have taken the decision for both Wellington and Aotearoa to sail so they can respond quickly if called upon by the Tongan Government”. The two ships will also be carrying aid funded by the UK in addition to the UK’s promise of providing 6 million dollars assistance to the Disaster Relief Emergency Fund. 

China has also decided to send basic supplies and the cash relief of $100,000 for Tonga while Japan has sent the 1 million dollar aid with the supplies to wash away the ashes off the Island. The assessment teams by the UN are visiting the Islands to gather the report of the damage done by “atomic bomb” like eruption. According to the reports, about 12,000 households have been affected by the disaster with the impact of it reaching beyond Tango to Peru. The oil spill caused by the tsunami and the volcanic eruption has been declared the “worst ecological disaster” and, according to the foreign minister of Peru, have caused “serious harm to hundreds of fishermen’s families”

All views expressed in this editorial are solely that of the author, and are not expressed on behalf of The Analyst, its affiliates, or staff.

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France closer to hijab ban in sports



France takes another step towards Islamophobia by trying to ban hijabs in sports competitions. The French senate has already voted in favor of this on late Tuesday but it is still unclear if this ban will be implemented in the 2024 Paris Olympics. 

The senate decided that the hijab affects the neutrality of the field play. The law that they are trying to pass states that wearing anything “of conspicuous religious symbols is prohibited” in the case of events and competitions organised by sports federations. In fact, the Senate clearly stated “the wearing of the veil in sport competitions” is prohibited because it can put the safety of athletes wearing it at risk. This is directly at odds with the French amendment that states that all citizens are free to practice their religion. The law says “no one may be disturbed on account of his opinions, even religious ones, as long as the manifestation of such opinions does not interfere with the established Law and Order. The free communication of ideas and of opinions is one of the most precious rights of man. Any citizen may therefore speak, write and publish freely, except what is tantamount to the abuse of this liberty in the cases determined by Law.” 

The amendment proposed had 160 votes in favor while 143 against it. However, the amendment is not finalised and they will be meeting again to find a compromise on text, which means it can be erased. This isn’t the first law aimed to constrict Muslims. Another law was passed a year ago by President Emmanuel Macron which strengthened government oversight of mosques in order to counter the influence of the Islamist movement. In fact, the French soccer federation already bans women from wearing hijab in official matches and competitions organised by them. To tackle this blatant Islamophobia, a football group by the name of Les Hijabeuses that comprises Muslim women that wear hijab have been actively campaigning against the ban. 

This is another form of oppression dressed like a favour. The definition of oppression is “a situation in which people are governed in an unfair and cruel way and prevented from having opportunities and freedom,” so banning women from wearing hijab directly influences the freedom of expression that they can have. Women have been wearing headscarves for centuries, so they know how to carry themselves with it without the need of the senate trying to save them. 

All views expressed in this editorial are solely that of the author, and are not expressed on behalf of The Analyst, its affiliates, or staff.

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Yemen: The humanitarian crisis facing the poorest Arab country after a 7-year war



Ibrahem Qasim, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

The violence in Yemen is escalating after the Yemeni Houthi group sent deadly drone attacks to the UAE on Monday that killed three people and injured six more. The war that started with Saudi Arabia is now seven years old and there is no chance of it stopping.

The Yemen Houthi took responsibility for the attack in the United Arab Emirates’ capital that happened in an oil site near the airport. This wasn’t the first attack by them as another explosion happened a few days ago and left no damage. This attack came after the Yemen Houthis threatened the UAE government after losing Shabwa, a key area in their scheme to control the country. They couldn’t take control of the area due to Saudi and UAE troops that pushed their advances back. The Saudi Arabian government also claimed that it received three explosions, without proper proof. According to a report the reason for this is “the role of the United Arab Emirates as Saudi Arabia’s main ally in the war in Yemen – in the destruction of the country and the killing of innocent civilians – is not hidden from anyone,” moreover “it is quite clear that in every Saudi crime against humanity in Yemen, there are traces of the UAE. For the past three years, however, Abu Dhabi has tried to deceitfully distance itself from the consequences of this devastating war.”  

As a result, there was a Saudi-led coalition airstrike in the capital of Yemen, Sana’a which killed 20 people in total. The coalition plane struck the house of a high-ranking military Houthi official, killing him and his family. This war has harmed innocent people the most as the UN believes that the country is already at the brink of a complete humanitarian disaster if these conditions continue. By the end of 2021, the Yemen conflict led to more than 377,000 deaths, both directly and through indirect reasons like lack of food and healthcare. Most of these deaths are made up of young children who die due to malnutrition. Right now, around 15.6 million people have been forced into extreme poverty as well.

The biggest victims of wars are always vulnerable people who get trapped between the conflicts of the country. Although the road to peace will not be easy, it is essential because the question remains how many more innocent people need to die to bring a stop to this war? Also, who is this war benefiting if the population of the country is living in extreme poverty and distress? 

All views expressed in this editorial are solely that of the author, and are not expressed on behalf of The Analyst, its affiliates, or staff.

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Tonga in dire need of drinking water and food



After the underwater explosion of a volcano near Tonga on Saturday ash, steam, and gas covered the region. This has led to a shortage of food and fresh drinking water and now the country is in dire need of help. 

The volcano has erupted three times in four days, causing major damage to Pacific island nations. The eruption was so powerful that it could be heard as far as New Zealand and Fiji Island. This eruption is said to be the biggest one recorded in over 30 years. Tonga is the nearest Island to the explosion, leaving it to face the aftermath firsthand. After the explosion, the Pacific Kingdom experienced a tsunami that ruined the coastal houses and businesses. If that wasn’t worse enough, their internet, power lines, and other forms of communication with the outside world have also been cut off. The chief executive officer at Save the Children Fiji, Shairana Ali explained how the situation in Tonga is dire by stating “there is an immediate need for food and water because there is severe ash fall and as a result of that water sources have been contaminated in most of the islands that have been affected,” adding “we are concerned about air quality as well. And our concern is for children who would obviously have had mental trauma because of this once-in-a-lifetime event.”

New Zealand and Australia are setting up efforts to help the ash-covered Island. To aid the situation of Tonga, a Royal New Zealand Air Force Orion aircraft has left for aerial inspection. However, till Sunday it had to stay on stand-by due to the terrible air conditions. Moreover, according to the New Zealand Prime Minister, Jacinda Ardern, the government has made an initial donation of $ 500,000 NZ to provide assistance to the country. The United Nations have also expressed their readiness to help the Island recover from the damage caused by this volcanic eruption. Since the main undersea communication has been impacted, there is still no proper report of injuries and deaths in the area. Moreover, the threat of a tsunami in other Pacific nations has now passed. The only precaution is that the coastal areas still need to stay alert for high waves. Hopefully, proper aid is provided to the people stuck in Tonga and those still not able to communicate with the outside world. 

All views expressed in this editorial are solely that of the author, and are not expressed on behalf of The Analyst, its affiliates, or staff.

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Tonga volcano eruption sends warning of tsunami to Japan and USA



After the volcanic eruption of the Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha’apai volcano, the shores of Japan and the USA are at risk of a tsunami. The underwater volcano erupted on Saturday 15th January 2022 and is causing ripples across the South Pacific coast.

The volcano erupted about 30 kilometers southeast of Tonga’s Fonuafo’ou Island twice, first on Friday and then later on Saturday. The volcano resulted in ash, gas, and steam reaching about 20 kilometers into the air. It also caused huge waves of more than a metre to crash into Tonga while many parts of the country are covered in ash. This also led to the blackout of power lines, phone lines, and also the internet. Not only that, there have been a lot of traffic jams in the country as people are fleeing the low-lying areas, leading to more disorder. 

Along with Japan and the USA, many South Pacific islands are experiencing large waves crashing into coastal homes. This has led Japan and the USA to advise people near the coast to move away as precautionary actions. Japan has issued a warning of waves reaching about three meters, to hit the southern part of the country, specifically the Amami islands where a 1.2m tsunami is already recorded. The high waves have not caused any harm yet, however, the Japan Meteorological Agency urged people to not go near the sea until all tsunami warnings are lifted.  In the briefing, the Japan Meteorological Agency official also stated “we do not know yet whether these (waves) are actually tsunami.” Moreover, the sound of the volcano could be heard in the Fiji Island of Japan as “loud thunder sounds” for around eight minutes. This island is 800km away from the source of the eruption leading to the Fiji government issuing a tsunami advisory and opening evacuation centers.

The volcano was heard in New Zealand as well which is pretty unusual since New Zealand is more than 2000 kilometers away. The GNS Science volcanologist Geoff Kilgour said “people hearing these sorts of sounds from so far away is very rarely recorded, it is only a few times in history,” adding that this explosion was “by far the most violent eruption that we have seen in some time.” Prof Shane Cronin, a volcanologist at the University of Auckland also shared her opinion, “this is a pretty big event – it’s one of the more significant eruptions of the last decade at least,” she said. This is of course a very big and rare event that will be remembered for many years to come. 

All views expressed in this editorial are solely that of the author, and are not expressed on behalf of The Analyst, its affiliates, or staff.

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A ‘historic victory’ of Germany’s exemplary verdict on Anwar Raslan



After a decade long wait, the silenced voices of the suppressed Syrian detainees who were assaulted, tortured and murdered in the Al-Khatib detention centre were given a voice on Thursday. The screams that were forcefully confined inside the dark walls of the 251 Branch of GSD, for years, were finally heard as the German court of the city of Koblenz sentenced Anwar Raslan to lifelong imprisonment. Anwar Raslan acted as an accomplice in the war crimes carried out under the regime of Syrian President Bashar al Assad. He was a prominent colonel overlooking the detention centre in Damascus, and the charges against him included the death of more than 20 murders and about 4000 allegations of abuse and torture. 

Although Syria had already been under the watch of the member states of the UN since 2011 for its restrictions on freedom of speech and forceful suppression over the people, the refugees coming from Syria to Germany seeking asylum were the ones who brought the world’s attention to the horrors being inflicted on them. Raslan himself was one of the refugees who sought asylum in Germany in 2012. But in 2019, Germany charged him, under international jurisdiction, and after considering the statements of 80 witnesses, a verdict of life imprisonment was given to him for his horrendous acts.

This was the second case of its kind. The first trial was of Eyad al-Gharib who was sentenced to four and a half years in prison for the crimes he committed in Syria under the supervision of Anwar Raslan. These trials were carried out under the code of crimes adopted by Germany in 2020, which according to United Nations’ Human Rights chief: “no matter where you are or how senior you may be, if you perpetrate torture or other serious human rights violations, you will be held accountable sooner or later, at home or abroad”

The verdict was welcomed greatly by the Syrian refugees who were able to escape the torture. Wassim Mukdad, who was one of the subjects of the abuse in the detention centre, while talking to BBC  over the verdict by exclaimed: “this is the first step in a very long way towards justice”

The Deputy Director for Amnesty International’s Middle East, Lynn Maalouf, while commenting on the decision said that the trial was only possible because of those “who dared to share their stories”. Appreciating the role of Germany, Lynn Maalouf called on the other countries to “follow Germany’s role.”

Although these kinds of trials have set an example for the world to attain justice, the developed countries and the countries in power, also need to devise plans to ensure the establishment of peace and ways to deal with the matters of Human rights in a timely manner. 

All views expressed in this editorial are solely that of the author, and are not expressed on behalf of The Analyst, its affiliates, or staff.

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