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The science behind nightmares: can we choose how we dream?

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As I forced myself to wake up from a terrifying and all-too-real nightmare a couple of nights ago, I noticed that not only did I struggle to wake up and was unable to move, but I also woke up straight on my backside—a sleeping position I rarely find myself in. After slowly regaining consciousness and thanking God that it was just a nightmare, I remembered what someone once told me: “You should not sleep on your back, or you will get nightmares.” I had not really paid attention to the way I slept until that very moment. I dream every night but do not always remember my dreams—like most people. Turns out, they were onto something. 

The average person dreams up to five times a night—some can even have seven dreams during a REM (rapid eye movement) cycle. It is common for people to forget what they dreamed about moments after waking up but there is no doubt that certain dreams stay with us. We have all experienced frantically waking up from horrifying depictions  of our subconscious. Nightmares are generally understood to stem from anxiety or big life changes but what you might not know are the habits or sleeping positions that can make you more prone to having them. 

The consensus is that to achieve blissful dreams, it is important to get a good night’s rest and be comfortable but, evidently, your sleeping positions have a lot to do with your dreaming patterns. According to the Sleep Foundation, across a large population of sleepers, 54.1% of total time in bed was spent sleeping on their side, 37.5% sleeping on their back, and 7.3% sleeping on their stomach. But what does that mean for your dreams? Well, a well-known researcher Dr. Calvin Kai-Ching Yu, says that “different sleep positions may create pressure to different parts of the body, and body feelings may be the sources of dream elements.”

According to studies, right-side sleepers experience more positive dreams and fewer nightmares than left-side sleepers. Furthermore, it is said that left-side sleeping is beneficial if you have acid reflux. “Studies show acid reflux is worse when people lie on their right-side. Pregnant women are advised to sleep on their left-side, to help circulation and blood flow to the placenta. Left-side sleeping may also help digestion. There is an ongoing question about whether a left-side or right-side sleep position is healthier for our hearts. Research shows that right-side sleeping may lower nervous system activity, which reduces heart rate and blood pressure.”

Back sleepers are said to experience more nightmares and find it harder to remember their dreams: 

According to Dr. Pelayo, it comes down to breathing. ‘The work of breathing is harder when you are on your back,’ he said. ‘Your tongue slides backwards and your breathing is more labored.’ It is a small obstruction, but breathing is already tougher when you are dreaming; you rely completely on your diaphragm, Dr. Pelayo explained, because the neck and rib muscles that usually aid with inhalation and exhalation ‘shut down.’ These two reasons cause your body to shift from a deeper, dreaming sleep (known as REM) to a lighter sleep, in order to open up your throat a bit and increase air flow. In that moment of transition, Dr. Pelayo said, ‘you become aware of whatever the content of your dreams are,’ good or bad.”

Now you might be considering changing your sleep position around to have some type of control over your dreams, but it is important to remember that these are simply general effects of sleeping a certain way and that just because you sleep in one position that does not necessarily mean you are likely to dream or feel a certain way while sleeping. Although changing your sleep position may affect the sorts of dreams you see, doctors and sleep experts do not recommend doing so since interrupting your body’s pattern can interfere with a natural and healthier sleep.  That being said, if you feel as if you are not getting a proper night’s sleep or are experiencing adverse health effects, consider consulting your doctor to see if changing sleeping habits may be right for you. 

If you are a back sleeper or are simply prone to nightmares, do not fret. According to some recent developments, nightmares might actually be good for us. Dream expert Leslie Ellis says, “Most people think nightmares are just about fear, but they can really be any really negative emotion. For a lot of people, it’s a really bad dream or really bad emotions, and they wake you up and they’re very vivid and easy to recall.” Famous horror movie director Eli Roth, known for creating films that have likely been the causes of many of our nightmares, says “None of us like having nightmares, but they are actually very healthy to have, because you are acknowledging something you are afraid of…. I just take my nightmares a step further, and then I write it down and I film it and I project it onto everybody else!” 

Psychology professor Jon Abramowitz at the University of North Carolina says that our dreams should not be taken literally because what matters more is what is causing them in the first place. He suggests that “we can tame our worst fears (in nightmares or in real life) by confronting them” and that “effective treatment involves having the person recount the nightmares writing them out engaging with them in a healthy way, rather than trying to push them away.” By actively trying to bury emotions, we end up paying more attention to them.

So, the next time you have a nightmare, instead of changing your sleeping position, perhaps take a moment and listen to what your brain and body are trying to tell you. Maybe embracing your fears will help you take on your anxieties better and, therefore, allow you to have sweet dreams and live a happier, healthier version of you. 

All views expressed in this editorial are solely that of the author, and are not expressed on behalf of The Analyst, its affiliates, or staff.

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Education

How to achieve a healthy ‘Play Diet’? – In Focus

Playing is an important part of being a child, but play has changed over the years. We have seen China put restrictions in place to limit the amount of time children spend playing games including on screens. Parents today struggle with their children who constantly seem to be on their devices and in front of screens day and night playing online. Outdoor play almost seems to be lost and forgotten about, but it is a key part of the ‘Play Diet’

Join us as we speak to Dr. Amanda Gummer, founder of the Good Play Guide (goodplayguide.com) who shares her research and insight to help bring ‘In Focus’ the importance of play, its role in the development for the next generation and how we achieve a good balance in our ‘play diet’

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All views expressed in this editorial are solely that of the author, and are not expressed on behalf of The Analyst, its affiliates, or staff.

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Education

Education barriers and inequality-the fate of the Afghan female.

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As education helps individuals to become better citizens, attain higher paying jobs, shows the difference between good and bad, it also shows us the importance of hard work and at the same time helps us to grow and develop, thus we are able to shape a better society to live in by knowing and respecting laws and regulation. If all these benefits are derived from education, then why should it be exclusively for one gender and not for all? 

 Educational inequality is the unequal distribution of academic resources, including school funding, experienced teachers, textbooks, and technology. Communities lacking these resources are mostly populated with groups that have been historically oppressed as results of long-term conflicts or wars. The Afghan education system has been disturbed for more than three decades of sustained conflict. This is especially true in rural areas and for girls, despite recent progress in increasing enrolment. Amidst the Taliban seizing power in August 2021, they recently confirmed that while secondary schools were reopening, only boys would be allowed to return the classroom and even women teachers in the country would be unable to return to work. 

Some of the causes of educational barriers and inequality of females in Afghanistan are, sociocultural barriers, poverty and financial barriers and insecurity and conflicts.

Socio cultural barriers

Social norms and traditional beliefs forbid access to secular education for many girls. Child marriage, although in decline, also remains a major obstacle to education. According to the Afghanistan Living Conditions Survey 2016-17, family disapproval is one of the three main reasons why girls and boys aged 6-24 years discontinue schooling, and this problem is more common among girls than boys (31% of girls versus only 1.5% of boys).

Furthermore, familial disapproval against ever entering school is also more so a problem for girls than boys (40 per cent compared to 3 per cent, respectively). Insecurity (real or perceived), including potential attacks from Armed Opposition Groups and harassment are another important barrier which affects girls much more than boys. The threat of sexual harassment, abuse, rape, and out of wedlock pregnancies are especially significant factors that deter parents from sending their daughters to school.

Poverty and financial barriers

Poverty tends to impact all other factors leading to exclusion from education, and almost all families and communities in Afghanistan face some degree of economic hardship. It influences decisions and opportunities relating to child labour, child marriage and children with disabilities, among others. Although school is free, there remain many indirect costs such as school supplies, clothes, and transportation. If a family cannot afford the indirect costs of education for all children in the household, it is more likely that girls are excluded.

Insecurity and conflicts

Violence and insecurity continue to remain prevalent and are even on the rise. This poses a particular set of problems for governance in Afghanistan’s education sector. Schools are a frequent target of attacks. The ongoing conflict has a strong impact on school closures, and disproportionately affects girls’ attendance. For instance, in 2018, armed conflicts caused school closures throughout villages in the Farah province and left 3,500 girls out of school. Even after schools re-opened, girls were reluctant and afraid to return. In addition, it poses problems in recruiting and keeping qualified teachers, especially female teachers which subsequently impacts girls’ enrolment.

Policies and strategies addressing barriers to education for adolescent girls.

Some policies and strategies that can solve the educational barriers and inequality of females in Afghanistan include; resolution and recognition between the de facto authorities and the International community, no compromises on women rights, and addressing insecurity and conflicts.

1. Recognition and resolution between the Taliban government and international communities

The De facto authorities together with various international communities should be in talks on ways to recover from grave losses of both natural and human resources, properties and thousands of loved ones perished. The community should therefore urge the Taliban authorities to seek ways of providing better life conditions and fulfilling human rights for its people as they have decided to shoulder that responsibility. Also the various International bodies such as the United Nations should continue to be in talks with the de facto authorities for the importance of females rights to education.

Ms. Mohammed, the Deputy UN chief who was speaking during a panel discussion on supporting a future for girls’ education in Afghanistan, held on the margins of the UN General Assembly. Prominent women advocates from Afghanistan and the international community also participated in the discussion, held both online and in person, and moderated by the BBC. When asked if international aid to Afghanistan could be conditional on education for women and girls, Ms. Mohammed responded “absolutely”, stating that the issue “continues to remain upfront” in ongoing discussions with the de facto authorities.

“This is where we have to have resolve: that recognition comes with your ability to be part of a global family. That has a certain set of values and rights that must be adhered to. And education is up front and centre, especially for girls and for women.”

The deputy UN chief urged the international community to draw on Afghan women’s expertise and support them in preventing a reversal of two decades of gains in girls’ education.

2. No compromises on women’s rights

Nobel Peace Prize laureate and UN Messenger of Peace, Malala Yousafzai feared the return of atrocities targeting women, as well as terrorism and extremism, both in Afghanistan and the region. She urged the international community to ensure women’s rights are upheld.

She statedWe cannot make compromises on the protection of women’s rights and on the protection of human dignity. This is a commitment that the UN has made, that they are there to work for the protection of human dignity”.

“So now is the time that we stick to that commitment and ensure that their rights in government are protected. And one of those important rights is the right to education” she said. 

All views expressed in this editorial are solely that of the author, and are not expressed on behalf of The Analyst, its affiliates, or staff.

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Education

Canadian school board says all staff must now take anti-Islamophobia training

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The motion comes months after attack in London, Ontario, which saw four Muslims killed while out on a walk

A school board recently became the first in Canada to commit to an anti-Islamophobia strategy which will require all staff to take mandatory training to combat anti-Muslim hate.

The Peel District School Board, representing schools in Brampton, Mississauga, and Caledon in the Greater Toronto Area, unanimously passed the motion on 30th September 2021. .

“Islamophobia is a major concern in our society,” said Nokha Dakroub, a Mississauga trustee who led the motion. She said the policy is meant to ensure that anyone interacting with students is “fully versed” in dealing with Islamophobia.

Dakroub said incidents such as the London attack in June — when a Muslim family of four were killed while on a walk — and the 2017 Quebec City mosque shooting spurred discussions on how to meaningfully address anti-Muslim sentiment.

The board has its own history of racism-related controversies.

Previous internal and provincial investigations found patterns of anti-Black racism and Islamophobia in Peel schools. The board introduced mandatory anti-Black racism training for staff in 2017.

In 2016, controversy erupted when the board changed its policy related to students offering Muslim Friday prayers in school. Previously, students could use any sermon for the prayer which had been approved by an administrator. The new policy required students to choose from a bank of pre-approved sermons.

Dakroub, who is also Muslim, fought against that policy and the board eventually reversed its decision. But she remembers the issue brought out the worst in some people, including an incident where a protester ripped a copy of the Qur’an at one of the board’s meetings. 

“To see that happen in this community was quite shocking,” she said.

Zahra Abdullah, a diversity and inclusion coach and a parent of two Peel students, welcomed the board’s commitment to an anti-Islamophobia strategy. 

Abdullah said when students learn about different communities, it builds understanding and empathy. 

“We’re planting good seeds in the right place,” she said. “Starting with school is key.”

For example, Abdullah said she learned a lot about Indigenous communities in Canada from what her daughter learns at school. 

“We cannot be inclusive if we don’t know about each other’s stories,” she added. “We don’t have to have people agree, but we need them to acknowledge the difference.” 

The board will now work with community groups and staff to put together the anti-Islamophobia strategy. But Dakroub said staff training can start any time because resources are already available in the community. 

For instance, the National Council of Canadian Muslims (NCCM), which worked with Dakroub and other organizations on the motion, offers equity workshops for schools.

The NCCM called Peel’s decision “a positive step forward” and called on other school boards to follow suit. A spokesperson said mandatory training can help staff better identify Islamophobia and address it.

“It is important for them to learn about … the minor ways in which they may be contributing to the larger issue without knowing it,” said Fatema Abdalla.

The Council of Agencies Serving South Asians (CASSA) was also involved with the motion, along with the Urban Alliance on Race Relations.

“This motion is long overdue,” CASSA said in a release. “We urge other school boards in the country to follow their lead.”

All views expressed in this editorial are solely that of the author, and are not expressed on behalf of The Analyst, its affiliates, or staff.

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Education

September, schools and Covid

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September is always an exciting time in English and Welsh Schools. There’s a buzz in the air. Teachers are rested and, hopefully, relaxed after a long summer break and the fragrance of hope hangs in the air. 

The September classroom is built on optimism and the alluring twinkle of potential waiting to be unleashed. The teacher often does not know the students and equally the students begin by showing their best behaviour to the new teacher, cautiously learning the expectations and boundaries of their class. Parents also begin the school year hopeful for the progress and happiness of their offspring. The days are long and often sunny, the cold, dark December days do not yet loom large on the horizon. In many ways, it is the most enchanting time of the year for those in school. The potency of possibility for all involved.

Yet, the past two years, the September start in schools has had a different feel. Gone are the days of Autumn Term 2019, the last full school year, when routines in school life ticked along as they had for decades. The Covid-19 pandemic has forever altered the psychological landscape of starting the school year. Last September, school reopened with a raft of new regulations on bubbles, hand washing, and track and trace responsibilities. Secondary school children were required to take lateral flow tests before entering their school following the lockdown that began in March 2020. Everyone was cautious. Coronavirus was still lurking around in the wider community, but there was a belief that mitigation measures would prevent or contain the spread: masks were required, isolation and bubble systems were designed to create a sense of security or, at a minimum, support. Many suspected, though perhaps did not know, that infections would sweep through schools. And indeed, they did – resulting in another national lockdown in January 2021. Another incomplete school year; another switch to online lessons.

This year the atmosphere is again different. The vaccine has been administered to over 40 million British adults, all social distancing regulations had been legally removed weeks earlier. Masks are not required, isolation rules have changed, and even international travel is beginning to return without testing and tracking and tracing obligations. So, this should feel like a normal school year perhaps? 

However, teachers, parents, and students may not feel as unfettered by concerns as the government guidelines suggest. Being a teacher on the frontline, I am acutely aware that everyone involved in school life is anxious and concerned. The first weeks of term have seen infections rise again, which are in double vaccinated adults, possibly transmitted by asymptomatic children. With no bubble bursting, it is almost impossible to accurately know where infections are starting from. Parents are not necessarily told about outbreaks and now nobody goes home. Gone are the moments when an appearance by the Head teacher ushered a raft of immediate phone calls and the herding of children into a separate room in the building. For all intents and purposes, schools can pretend Covid-19 is just another flu.

Many parents may be feeling anxious about sending children into school. Many school staff are anxious too. We are in the middle of a wait and see approach. School communities are at the forefront of testing the waters at a time when many workers remain at home and have not yet returned to working in offices in person. Nobody is certain what will happen in the next few months, especially as winter approaches – a time where colds and infections normally increase.

Nadim Zahawi, MP, recently stepped into this maelstrom as the newly appointed Secretary of State for Education. The school community are waiting to see what impact or changes he will oversee in his role. In his first major speech to educators at the NAHT annual conference, Zahawi indicated that he would put wellbeing and attendance at the centre of his policies and increase spending to ‘record’ levels. He also said, “Another key priority for me will be getting to the root of what is causing children to be persistently absent and then tackling it head on”.

That sounds like a very positive beginning. However, as recent figures show that Coronavirus infection is one of the leading causes of current absences, it is hard to know what this statement means. Will he reintroduce mitigation measures and the bubble system? Unlikely. Current measures seem to be firmly fixed. Will he give some timely guidance over next summer’s exams so that everyone can prepare in time? Not so far. With 204,000 students in England absent due to Covid in the last two weeks of September, it remains to be seen if this rhetoric will translate into meaningful action.

Teachers and students everywhere will soldier on as they always do, limping towards the July end of year. Come what may, next September schools will restart with their usual bound of optimism and hope. Only time will tell what challenges this academic year will bring. 

All views expressed in this editorial are solely that of the author, and are not expressed on behalf of The Analyst, its affiliates, or staff.

A teacher, mother and radio presenter. Is interested in education, equality and community relations. Currently living in London.

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Education

To what extent are facemasks impeding children’s development and should we be worried?

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Covid-19 has formed and impacted a huge part of our daily lives, from the elderly to newborn babies. The wearing of face masks to slow the transmission of the virus has been one of the most apparent changes in our lives. There are unquestionable health benefits related to the use of facemasks, however the question arises, does the use of these face coverings by children in particular have the potential to impair their development?

In early childhood development, children go through sensitive periods where language and emotional development are rapidly developing. With the mandatory wearing of face masks by these children in kindergartens, day care centres and schools, parents in particular are concerned about their health. 

Professor Kang Lee of the applied psychology and human development department at the University of Toronto has studied the development of facial recognition skills in children. He highlights three potential issues that might occur due to facemasks in the interaction of children with their classmates or teachers. 

Firstly, he mentioned that kids below the age of 12 may have difficulty recognising people, as they tend to focus on individual features of the person. Secondly, Lee pointed out potential problems with emotional recognition and social interaction. He stated “a lot of our emotional information, we display through movement of our facial musculature” and with masks, that musculature and thus the information will be obscured. The last issue Lee brought up was speech recognition. He said even though speech communication is thought of to be taking place through phonetics and sound, a large portion of the information can actually be communicated visually. Therefore, the wearing of masks has the potential to impair speech recognition in children, as they will be unable to notice the visual clues present in a conversation. 

Dr. David Lewkowicz, a senior scientist at the Haskins Laboratories and the Yale Child Study Center, has studied lip-reading in babies. He states that around the age of six to eight months, as babies start babbling, they tend to focus on the “person’s mouth” instead of on the eyes. They try to “master their own native speech, getting not only auditory cues but visual.” 

Ashley Ruba, a postdoctoral researcher in the University of Wisconsin-Madison’s Child Emotion Lab has also stated that in fact being able to use others’ verbal or facial cues to figure out how someone is feeling or pick up on safe or dangerous aspects of environments and people around them is a crucial task for young kids. Masks therefore have the potential to impair children’s ability to pick up on such cues. 

However, although masks can pose potential developmental problems, many scientists have found that the gravity of such interferences, while present, are not significant – especially in the long term and do not outweigh the risk of potential death from Covid-19. 

A study was carried out by Ruba during the pandemic where she and her co-author showed more than 80 children (aged seven to 13) photographs of faces that were either unobstructed, covered by a surgical mask or wearing sunglasses. The three faces displayed emotions of sadness, anger or fear. Ruba then asked the children to assign one of six emotions to each face. The results showed that the children were correct in their responses about uncovered faces 66% of the time. With faces covered by masks, the children had trouble but were able to correctly identify sadness about 28% of the time, anger 27% and fear 18%. These percentages were higher than the odds (approximately 17%) of correctly guessing one emotion out of the total six labels. 

Considering these findings, as well as children’s innate ability to adapt to dynamic situations and surroundings, some scientists do not suspect any long-term impacts of masks on children’s development.

Dr Hugh Bases, a clinical associate professor of paediatrics at Hassenfeld Children’s Hospital at NYU Langone Health is one of the experts not too concerned with the effects of mask-wearing. He states “we will quickly recover” from whatever impact mask wearing has had. 

Similarly, Amy Learmonth, a professor of psychology at William Paterson University in New Jersey said balancing the risk of someone dying from coronavirus with potentially slow social and language development in children “just doesn’t seem worth it to me … when all the evidence we have indicates that they will catch up and they will be OK”.

Dr. Lewkovicz states while “masks are not a great thing for communication in young kids”, the time children spend at home with people who are not masked will give them a chance to practice picking up the visual cues. He advises parents as well as teachers to try and “encourage their kids to communicate more through gestures,” for example via interactive games, if they are worried for their child’s development. 

 “We should give more credit to our own children,” Eva Chen, a developmental psychologist and an associate professor at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, says. She adds “that being covered for a few hours every day isn’t going to make them less able to recognise social expressions.”

As such, it can be concluded that masks may have some potential developmental impacts on growing children; however, the effects can be easily recovered from and are currently not a major point of concern for various experts. 

All views expressed in this editorial are solely that of the author, and are not expressed on behalf of The Analyst, its affiliates, or staff.

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Education

Back to school

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Summer has ended and all children are now back to school. The return to routine may mean going to bed at an earlier time, finding and preparing a school bag as well as laying out one’s school uniform. Considering the last 18 months of the Covid-19 pandemic, perhaps students should also have a mask at the ready. 

Whether a child is starting school for the first time or is going back to another year of education, adjusting to a new routine is not always a smooth process. Symptoms of anxiety include difficulty sleeping and eating, irritability, angry outbursts, negative thoughts, and lack of confidence.

It is noteworthy that through school education, children not only develop essential academic knowledge of English, Maths, Science, and other subjects; they also develop many extensive skills that go beyond academia. It incorporates the development of various soft and social skills. 

One of the most primary and essential soft skills children develop is time management, learnt by arriving at school and lessons on time and completing a task set by the teacher within the set time frame. 

Through a combination of different lessons and activities carried out across subjects, children cultivate teamwork and communication skills. Activities that highlight different perspectives, whilst working as part of a team can involve disagreements and conflict. This is important for children as it helps them to see things from different perspectives and manage different viewpoints. In addition, teamwork promotes input from everyone to create an interactive learning atmosphere. Interactive learning also allows children to take on new roles, for instance, students who may be more shy can be encouraged to take on leadership roles, which allows growth and increased confidence. 

A study in 2014 showed that good communication is partly grown from a positive classroom environment and achievement sharing.

Education and learning have been severely impacted because of the Covid-19 pandemic; online learning and the lack of face-to-face contact has made it more challenging to understand educational material for students. 

Although, according to the latest government guidelines wearing a face mask is no longer a requirement, preventative measures can still be carried out to support safe learning environment. Teaching without a facemask allows for better interaction and communication between students and teachers. However, hygiene and safety are essential considerations in the current circumstances. YoungMinds is the UK’s leading charity for children and young people’s mental health and advises talking with children about ways they can stay safe at school. A preventative measure for children would be to wash hands before and after eating and reassure them that the school have established precautions to keep them safe. 

If your child does continue to use a mask, ensure it is comfortable and provide an extra one in case one gets wet or dirty during the day.

Furthermore, considering the vast changes that have happened throughout the pandemic, it is entirely normal for a child to have a mixture of emotions for the return to school. Discuss with your child any concerns, identify positive aspects, and recognise the things that you can look forward to. 

“Being prepared can really help manage anxiety. Make sure you have all uniforms, school bags ready in advance”, says Maryam Chowdhry who has worked as a parenting facilitator for 11 years.

 “Adjust your routine a few days before school starts so you are waking and sleeping at the right times. You could even do a test run and walk/drive to school the days before”.

“Keep communication open and allow them to share how they are feeling. Acknowledge any anxiety or worries they have and come up with some strategies to help address them in advance. For example, if your child is worried about not liking the lunches, go out and choose some packed lunch items together. Make sure you don’t pass on any of your own anxieties and only share your positive thoughts and feelings.”

In addition, support your children to understand any changes in their classroom set up, daily schedule and peer groups. In terms of children of younger age groups, providing visual aid can facilitate understanding. Therefore, requesting schools to send any images can help to make things feel more familiar. 

The Mental Health Foundation has suggested coping strategies to handle stress. This includes speaking with family or friends, as well as practising breathing techniques and carrying out regular exercise. 

Also, children should focus on the present and the matters within their control, such as washing hands regularly and wearing a mask. Encourage children to stay positive and support them not to stress and overthink about things they cannot control, such as what might happen in the pandemic several months later.

“Arrange some play sessions with other children from your child’s class so they can make friendships and recognise some familiar faces on their first day back” and “teachers can arrange for visits prior to the actual start date,” advises Mariam Chowdhry.

If a child has additional physical or special educational needs, the NHS provides guidance on the importance talking to them about the situation and plan activities that they enjoy and it could help them to feel better. If changes occur in guidelines, e.g. regarding facemasks, testing, and group sizes; a beneficial approach could include requesting your child’s education provider for detailed information with photos or videos on what to expect. These resources can be used to explain what has happened and why to your child 

Looking ahead, it is important to understand and communicate changes with your child and enjoy the year of education ahead!

All views expressed in this editorial are solely that of the author, and are not expressed on behalf of The Analyst, its affiliates, or staff.

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